Skeleton Discovered, Fossil DiscoveryFossil Discovery: Skeleton discovered from a grave in Venice

As recently as Feb 2009, the researchers exhumed a skeleton from a grave in Venice. The discovery opened up a new horizon in many fields, as it is claimed to be the first known examples of the “vampires” that have been globally referred to in so many modern documents. Matteo Borrini of the University of Florence, Italy discovered the skeleton of a woman with a small rectangular piece of stone block in the mouth. Borrini discovered this strange skeleton while excavating mass graves of the middle aged victims of the Venetian plague of 1576 on the Lazzaretto Nuovo Island in Venice.

Borrini’s amazing discovery of the skeleton has helped the researchers to draw a link between the epidemic (plague) and human belief during those days. It was due to the wanton spread out of the plague, that people had been victimized by death. At the time the woman died, people used to believe that the plague was spread out by the “Vampires”, which did not drink people’s blood, but killed them by spreading out diseases by chewing on their shrouds after they died. According to Borrini, the grave diggers, put the small block of stone in the mouth of the dead women (those who were suspected to be “Vampires”) to stop them killing people by spreading epidemics.

According to the researchers, the belief in the so-called “vampires” had risen probably because of the fact that sometimes blood oozed out of the victims’ mouth while dying, which consequently caused the shrouds to sink inwards. Borrini presented his findings at a meeting of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences in Denver, Colorado during the last week of February 2009. He claimed that this might be the first known example of vampire to have been examined forensically.

Interestingly, Peer Moore-Jansen of Wichita State University in Kansas claimed that he had found similar skeletons in Poland. According to him, "claiming it as the first vampire is a little ridiculous". Borrini says that his study includes every detail of the earliest grave and shows archaeological "exorcism evidence against vampires".

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zig-zag lightning flashes, zig zag lightning flashesHere’s another very interesting thing that I had discovered from some reliable and valuable sources some years back. Someone had hit the media with an amazing question… “Why is it always that the lightning flashes are seen in zig-zag lines?” Well, a question like this is hardly faced by teachers and parents, I am sure. I personally haven’t yet come across too many kids asking such uncommon question!

So just read on… find why we always see thunder flashes in zig-zag lines. Lightning bolts are flashes that are produced by the high intensity electrical discharges in the atmosphere. Let's start off with an explanation that a lighting flash is a plasma and stripping the electrons off the atoms and molecules! The high intensity electrical discharges are produced due to the friction of the rising hot air with the condensed water particles in the cloud, thereby creating the positive electrical charges, accompanied by the build up of high intensity opposite charges – Negative Charges at the nearest point on the ground. This discharge doesn’t happen until the intensity of charges in the clouds exceeds the optimum limit. In this way a sequence of random discharges occur due to the repetitive crossing of critical limit of the intensity of the charges. The negative charges are discharged in step wise manner from the top of the cloud to its base. This is known as “Leader Discharge”. All the accumulated charges are discharged towards the Earth, which is actually the opposite negative charges and during this course of action reverse flow of electron (negatively charged particles) takes place from the ground towards the cloud, along the same path. The high speed of the high voltage current causes flash, which we call “Lightning”!

This flow and reverse flow of charges are of extreme high speed and are random and cross the atmospheric mediums of varied densities. As it happens randomly and crosses varied medium densities in atmosphere, which make the perception of the lightning in a wavy and zig-zag mode.

Remember, had this atmosphere been a vacuum, we could have seen lightning flashes in perfect straight lines

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A discovery of fact of Pyramid Age!
Sonic Technology used to move the heaviest blocks of stones of Pyramids

The long hunted mystery of the heaviest stone blocks of the myriad Egyptian pyramids has been revealed! I have always wondered as to how those guys could manage to move the heaviest stone blocks that were multiple times heavier than the present day’s locomotive engines. Just a few days back while I was just cleaning my age old book shelf, I came across a news paper (The Times, London) that attracted my attention! “The clue lies hidden in the way an opera singer can shatter a wine glass”, said the researcher Andrew Collins.

stone blocks of pyramids, move, hit, rollerAccording to Andrew Collins the secret laid hidden in using the sound vibrations whether made by raucous, cacophonous sound made by instruments or by making violent strikes of surfaces. Collins said that he had “compelling evidence” that the sonic technology was used to move the heaviest blocks of stones for the myriads pyramids in the ancient Egyptian civilization!

“Arguably the most accomplished engineering feet of the ancient world” as to how the ancient Egyptians built their gigantic pyramids, has long bewildered great minds. Theories that involve ramps, rollers and pulleys have been considered to the most likely explanations! Collins said that some stones that used to weigh up to around 200 tons and measuring up to 9 mts. would have required the strength the strength of over 4000 matured persons to move! Collins published his study on the 10th century civilization in his book “God of Eden” that was released in February, 1998.

Another Arab historian talked about the huge stone blocks of the myriad pyramids. His discovery also encompasses the same theme! The sonic technology was used to move the huge blocks of stones to make those mighty pyramids. According to his documents the stones were being hit with rods, and the ground by stamping of feet and clapping by thousands of people, thus creating vibrations by the sound produced. The severe sound vibration helped defying the gravitation pull of the Earth, thereby making it easy to pull the stones inch-by-inch to the desired destination. They hit upon the bright idea of rolling the huge blocks of pyramid stones on large wooden rollers.

stone blocks of pyramids, move, hit, rollerMr. Collins said: “the ancient Egyptians were able to setup some kind of sustained sound vibrations that enabled the building blocks to defy the gravity. Although simply the leg-end, there are tradition from all round the world to speak of the movement of a stone blocks and the constructions of walls and buildings by sonic levitation.” Although some of the leading Egyptiologists declined be at agreement with the theory, many others researchers believed in the fact that Ultra Sonic technology was used to bring huge stone blocks from distant places to build the pyramids. Jacqueline Pegg, an egyptiologist, kept her study and research work focused on power of sound in her post graduate dissertation at University College, London. Jacqueline said: “I don’t think it’s impossible. If you read the Pyramid texts, it says, when King rises to the heaven, it was always accompanied with great noise, whether clapping or stamping. That could be a metaphor, but they saw sound could do this.”

My view on this is that use of sonic technology to move the mighty pieces of stones is a convincing argument. If sound can crack glass tanks (aquariums) and mirrors, if bomb sound can toss buildings, it’s not impossible that those stone blocks could be moved using cacophonous sound.

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Discoveries of some of the long lost Mayan Cities

Recently discovered ruins of some of the great Mayan cities of the ancient southern Mexico, has stirred up debates across the globe! Guess what! Interestingly the chicles (the modern day's student faves... Chewing Gum) is involved in contributed a lot in this discovery.

The Mayas of the Southern Mexico loved chewing chicles. Evidences are there that one of their heroes, called Kukulkan, who had been worshipped as Lord, used to be highly fond of chewing gum. They used to call them "Chicle", as most people even today call it by this name. The main source of the chewing gum was wild sapodilla trees. They used to make sharp cuts in the bark of the wild wild sapodilla trees and collected the viscous milky white liquid that oozed out of the cuts. when the thick liquid hardened, they became delectable for chewing. Gradually the habit of chewing chicles got spread out through out the Central America and later more widely across the globe. The credit of introducing the chicles in to the modern world actually goes to two American people, named William Wrigley Jr. around 1870s. Later the demand for chewing gums turned out to be really huge and needs were felt to search for the wild sapidilla trees. Good news is that while searching for these wild tress, some of the ruins of the great Mayan cities have been discovered. The discoveries of the ancient Mayan cities helped resolved the longest hunts for the Mayan culture and civilization, but more interesting point hereby is that the hunt for the chicle tree is the root to these amazing discoveries.

A very few consumers of chicles actually know the history of product and it's link with the recent discoveries of the Mayan cities, although chewing the chewing gums has consistently been a part of the popular culture of North America for more than a century, and even the whole world at present. Even I just came to know about the habit of chewing chicles by the pre-Columbian people - the Aztec and Mayans. The extensive research work on this has been by using the historical evidences like documents and engraves. Anthropological, archaeological, botanical, and cultural ecological literature have helped the researchers a lot in this too!

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Fossil discovery fills in the gap in human evolution process!
'We just found the chain of evolution, the continuity through time...’

One very recent discovery has unearthed some big secrets about how human ancestors made the giant leap from one species to another. The findings were reported in the scientific journal "Nature". The fossil discovery in 2006 unveiled how actually the complete chain of human evolution till date are linked together. Scientists have discovered a fossil that is around 4.2 million years old in northeastern Ethiopia. The discovery has proved to be one of the most significant fossil discoveries so far, as it helped the researchers fill the gaps of how the ancestors of human made the big leap from one species to the next advanced one.

This newly discovered fossil is of the species Australopithecus Anamensis that had been found in the region of the Middle Awash, where as many as seven other species close to human in appearance, spanning around 6 million years and three major phases of human development that had already been discovered previously. With this discovery, the scientists got more detailed clue about the link of the gaps between some prehistoric species in the evolutionary process of human. In a telephonic interview from Addis Ababa, the study co-author and Ethiopian anthropologist Berhane Asfaw said, "We just found the chain of evolution, the continuity through time, One form evolved to another." According to the scientists, the species Anamensis is not new, but its location is what helped the scientists to explain the shift from one early phase of human-like development to the next advanced phase. This way the complete chain of human evolution process has been discovered, which is really a path-breaking innovation in the world of science! Until this amazing discovery was made and analyzed, scientists had only the snapshots of human evolution scattered hither and thither all around the world. This is one most vital finding, because it tied up everything with a single chain, making those disorganized snapshots more of a miniature movie of the human evolution. “It’s like 12 frames of a home movie, but a home movie covering 6 million years... The key here is the sequences. It’s about a mile thickness of rocks in the Middle Awash and in it we can see all three phases of human evolution,” said study lead author Tim White, co-director of Human Evolution Research Center at University of California at Berkeley.

The modern man falls under the genus "Homo", which is a subgroup of the family of "Hominids". As per the research, What actually evolved into "Homo" might be the genus called "Australopithecus" (once known as “man-ape”), which includes the famed 3.2 million-year-old “Lucy” fossil that was found around mid 70's. The key component for the genus that evolved into "Australopithecus" was "Ardipithecus". What is more imjportant is this newest finding bridges, although not completely, the gap that existed between Australopithecus and Ardipithecus.

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With the advent of Bach FLower therapy, there was a big revolution in the medical world! The Bach Flower therapy (pronounced as 'Batch' ) is one of the most innovative healing modality, which was discovered by a british allopathic Dr. Edward Bach (Pronounced as Batch) - (1886 - 1936) M.B., B.S., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., D.P.H. (Camb.). The discovery was maed around 1930 to
1936. Bach's approach was really quite unique, because that wasn't intended to treat or dignose and cure diseases based on the modern medical techniques. It was rather a very simple system of eliminating the negetive behaviors by considering the patients' personality traits, nature and attitude towards life. Such considerations are made irrespective of your diseases or medical conditions. According to Dr. Bach, the reigning behavioral negativities such as guilty feeling, frustration, and/or jealousy that get accumulated in human mind over a certain span of time are the negetive emotions that make us "emotionally imbalanced", are root cause of all human ailments, as they alters the biochemistry of the patients.

According to Bach Flower Therapy, often any medical condition result from the emotional imbalance emerging directly from the mind or from socio-economic stress. As per Dr. Bach, as soon as your mental condition improves, the psychological trouble gets mitigated and the physical trouble disappears along side. This implies that the patients' nature, their attitude towards life and inimitable surrounding circumstances have vital roles to play in breeding diseases. During the course of his work he as a general phycian he realized that the value of a priceless dictum that said: "There are no diseases or ill-health conditions but only sick (emotionally imbalanced) People!" While treating his patients, the doctor used to study their emotional configuration and their personal traits. He studied many individual personalities and analysed their psychological make-up and carried out a series of scientific tests. he found a co-relation of those negative emotions with the intestinal flora (fluid) or bacterial bowel lining of that particular patient. Dr. Bach noticed that two patients, who are same in age, height and weight, with same background and proficient in same field often react in different way under a same situation. The reason is simple! They have entirely different approaches towards life. Their mind is triggered with their own emotions which different from each other. While prescribing certain dosage of antibiotics to such patients for the same ailment, Dr. Bach observed that the rate of recovery also vary. The inherent nature and the approach towards life cast a great impact in recovery too! The doctor concluded that the nature of a person and the mental configuration plays te most vital role in the process of healing, which is why, according to him consideration those factors are of prime importance while determining the line of treatment.

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With a motive to bridge the gap between the rockets and airplanes, the US military is planning to carry out an experimental aircraft that can fly at a pace over 6 times than the speed of light! The aircraft will work on the ordinary jet fuel but is expected to work multiple times faster. It is officially called X-51, but the guys love to give it a special name - "WaveRider". But why "WaveRider" and not any other name? Because this special aircraft will stay partially airborne, with its lift generated by the shock waves of its own flight. This is really a highly technical aircraft the civilization has ever witnessed. Being the pioneers in technology, the designers have designed the special aircraft, keeping in mind the goal of program that includes demonstration of air-breathing, hypersonic, combustion ramjet engine, known as a scramjet.

"We built a vehicle around an engine," said Joseph Vogel, the project manager of X-51 with boeing, which is building a series of four test planes programs, which is managed by managed by the Air Force Research Laboratory in Dayton, Ohio. The total expense invloved in the program is aroud $246.5-million.

Scramjets works on a high-value technology by using the forward motion of an engine to compress the air for fuel combustion. Although very much similar to to a ramjet engine, yest there is a slight difference. Scramjets work at supersonic speeds that can the capacity to break the record for a jet-powered aircraft with a speed of Mach 9.6, or around 7,000 mph. The concept has been tested by NASA in the year 2004. The vehicle, called X-43, flew only for a few seconds, because the copper-based engine of X-43 wasn't designed to survive the tenure of flight.

The Air Force X-51 program manager Charlie Brink told Discovery News: "The heat from the combustion process was just absorbed by (X-43's) engine. It would hold its shape for a limited point of time and then start melting". The X-51 engine, made by Pratt & Whitney, is made up of a standard nickel alloy, which keep the engine cool during the flight. The program's goal is to fly for about five minutes.

In an interview, Vogel said, "I truly believe this is one of those history leaps that will only happen every so many hundred years". The US military has its eye on the high-speed cruise missiles and along side the space vehicles too that doesn't actually need carry-on oxidizers. The space shuttle carries both liquid hydrogen as well as liquid oxygen, to power its main engines.

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about google mars information,google mars 3-d,googlemars3-dimensional, 3 dimensional   google mars application google on mars, google lands on marsThe first map of Mars - the red planet was published in 1895 by Percival Lowell. After years of telescopic experiments of the neighbor planet Lowell came up with an amazing pictograph of Mars that enticed interests of millions across the globe. Time's different now. Everything is at your finger tips. You can use your web browser to find what's there in Mars. Yes, those smart brains, who brought you the astounding Google Sky and Google Earth have now come up with what they call Google Mars. In collaboration with the NASA scientists at Arizona State University, they have created the most scientific map of Mars. Never before this any map of Mars, as detailed as this, was made. Good news is that all the three software, the Google Earth, Google Sky and Google Mars are now a complete package and downloading it is quite easy. The 3-dimensional topographic views of Mars is now so realistic that exploring the virtual Mars is really an amazing experience. Noel Gorelick, the tech lead for the Google Astro team said about the data and images,"It's as raw as it possibly can be". The data that comprises Google Mars 3-D doesn't look like the processed and touched-up/edited images. Students, teachers and parents will find their hours frozen with fun and excitement while soaring through the alien trenches on the red planet.

Most of the imagery used in 3-D Google Mars is publicly available and are easily accessible on sites across Internet, said Noel Gorelick, the project leader. This new tool helps to explore the whole of Mars by fetching data together in the same place and at the same time. That's where the value of the tool lies, thinks Gorelick. The data and the imagery that can be found in Google Mars 3-D are based on the pictures received from the landers and orbiters since years. Ashwin Vasavada, the NASA researcher in Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), who wasn't tied to the Google Mars 3-D project, said:"We spend the money to send craft to study Mars, but compiling all that data isn't something NASA has the resources to do".about google mars information,google mars 3-d,googlemars3-dimensional, 3 dimensional   google mars application google on mars, google lands on marsNoel Gorelick, a NASA veteran for 19 years joined GOogle in 2006. He used the NASA's images of Mars to create the 2-D application called Google Mars. On further processing the data from NASA, the U.S. Geological Survey, the European Space Agency and from other reliable sources, Gorelick ungraded the Google Mars map application into 3-dimensional version, thereby creating scopes for the armchair explorers to spy on the red planet.

Google Inc. and NASA joined hand to launch the Mars add-on for the Google Earth application in February, 2009 that has it's popularity already at the peak. The the Google Mars 3-D updates of March, 2009 enlists more interesting features like
spanning back to see the historical globe maps of Mars, watching real-time orbital tracks of space craft and guided exploration of Mars. Interestingly, the users of Google Mars 3-D application can explore the Mars and spot out the points of some of the NASA landers and rovers.

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Hey... how many planets are there in our Solar System? The answer is 8! Wondering? Read out...

Until 2006, nothing was officially known about Eris. Eris is the largest known dwarf planet that had been discovered while a team of three astronomers, Mike Brown (Caltech), Chad Trujillo (Gemini Observatory), and David Rabinowitz (Yale University) were on a survey at Palomar Observatory's Samuel Oschin telescope. They suggested the name officially on September 6, 2006 which was accepted and announced on September 13, the same year. This discovery of new planet stirred up a buzz across Internet as well as many science magazines.

Myth About Its Name:

The name has been given in honor of the Greek goddess warfare and strife - ERIS, who's believe to breed the sense of jealousy and causes aggression among men. Greek mythology documents a story of the wedding of Peleus and Thetis, where all Gods were invited except Eris. Enraged at the exclusion, Eris spitefully caused a situation when Gods got involved in a quarrel that caused the Trojan war. Keeping the myth in mind, the researchers named the new planet Eris, as it caused a great lot of confusion among the members of international astronomical community in a discussion board at International Astronomical Union (IAU) in Prague, regarding the planet's proper designation. The meeting ended up with a conclusion that Pluto and Eris had to be demoted to Dwarf-Planet category, setting apart the solar system with only 8 planets! Both Pluto and Eris are the distant objects ever seen in orbit around the sun.

It was literally not possible to say how bit Eris was when it was first discovered. Researchers were gripped in confusions regarding it's size, because all they could see was a dot of light, which was actually the sunlight reflected off Eris's surface. Another big confusion was that the researchers didn't know if the object was bright because of it's highly reflective surface or because of it's large size or both. The discoverers said: "When an object is too far away to directly see how big it is, astronomers use an indirect method instead where they measure the heat coming from the object. If we wanted to measure the size of a fire, for example, we could do it by measuring the total amount of heat coming from the fire. The temperature of the flames in a match and a bonfire are essentially the same, but a bonfire emits much more heat because it is much bigger. The same is true of distant planets. Because we know how far away the planet is we have a pretty good idea of the surface temperature (a frosty 405 degrees below zero!), thus when we measure the total heat we can tell how big the object is. Unfortunately, the new planet is so far away and so cold that our first attempt at measuring the heat, using the Spitzer Space Telescope, could not detect the heat output. This fact tells us that the object must be smaller than about 3300 km."

Discovery of a New Planet Solar System 8 planets about Eris dwarf planet dwarf-planet surface of Eris distance of Eris from the sun Astral Science,  Planet Science
Atmosphere and Surface of Eris

The discoverers study the composition of the dwarf-planet, Eris by studying the sunlight reflected off of the new object. They used the Gemini Observatory on Mauna Kea, Hawaii to study sunlight reflected off of the surface of Eris and found remarkable similarities with Pluto, although not completely identical! Surface of Pluto is moderately red, while Eris appears to be white. Since Pluto has a mottled surface, it reflects 60% of the sunlight on an average, which hits it. Eris has comparatively uniform surface, which makes 86% (+/- 7%) of the sunlight to reflect back. The distance of Eris from the sun is so great that its surface is a frozen solid! In around 280 years or so, Eris will be around 2.6 time closer than it's current location from the sun. Over the next 280 years the absolute temperature of Eris will eventually rise by a factor of 1.6 (which is the square root of 2.6). Currently the temperature of Eris is minus 405 degree.

Facts About This New Planet - Eris:

  • Discoverers - Brown, Trujillo, Rabinowitz
  • Size - 2400 +/- 100 km (105% Pluto)
  • Brightness - 4th brightest Kuiper belt object (KBO)
  • Current distance - 97 AU
  • Orbital period - 560 years
  • Closest approach to sun - 38 AU
  • Visibility - late summer, fall, early winter
  • Tilt of orbit - 44 degrees
  • Furthest from sun - 97 AU

Note: AU means Astronomical Units. 1 AU = 149 598 000 kilometers

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ScienceDaily Nonggang Babbler discovered exciting discovery news of discovery amazing discoveries rare bird rare bird speciesAnother amazing news of discovery awaits here...

The stuff was published at ScienceDaily on February 8, 2009. A new species of rare bird has been discovered very recently. Researchers call it a "babbler", as the bird makes loud, babbling cry. This new species of bird has been discovered in the Guangxi province in south-west China, located very close to the border with Vietnam. In the honor of the reserve at which it was discovered, the scientists named the bird Nonggang Babbler Stachyris nonggangensis. The Nonggang Babbler has been found to have a close resemblance with Sooty Babbler S. herberti, and the researchers concluded that this new species is closely related to Sooty Babbler S. herberti. The Nonggang Babbler is a bit larger than Sooty Babbler, and has white crescent patches right behind the ear coverts and dark spots on the throat and upper region of breast.

Until 2005 this beautiful rare bird species hadn't been sighted, and the ornithologists, Zhou Fang and Jiang Aiwu from Guangxi University were the first ones to identify this amazing babbler as an un-described taxon in the year 2006. A detailed informative copy had been published in an edition of ornithological journal "The Auk" very recently. By general behavior, the Nonggang Babbler resembles a wren-babbler of the genus Napothera, says the ornithologists. The babbler in survey prefers running to flying, rather than flying off directly from motionlessness. This new species of babbler has been found to be investing most of its time on the ground, foraging for insects under the fallen leaves and between pebbles, which is interestingly in contrast to other closely-related babblers that hardly come on the ground. The nesting habits of Nonggang babblers have not yet been traced, because no nests have been found, although around 100 pairs of the birds have been observed in Nonggang.ScienceDaily Nonggang Babbler discovered exciting discovery news of discovery amazing discoveries rare bird rare bird species

Ornithologists, Zhou Fang said: "I have been studying birds in the region since the 1970s but I had never seen it before. Their habitat in the reserve is protected, but as they could also exist in the karst rainforest outside the reserve, logging and burning wood to make charcoal pose a threat to their wider habitat." He continued, "The limestone area in south-western Guangxi is part of the Indo-Burma global biodiversity hot spot and the south-east Chinese Mountains Endemic Bird Area, and is one of the most typical tropical karst regions in the world. The fragility of the karst ecosystem and its destruction by people pose great threats to the bird's existence. Therefore, research and conservation of the birds in this habitat is very urgent".

This has been an real exciting discovery; there can be more amazing discoveries awaiting ornithologists in China. This was what Dr Nigel Collar, the Leventis Fellow in Conservation biology at BirdLife International thought.

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discovery, discoveries aquamarine discoveries around the world, discovery website on invention, science websites, aquamarine discoveries micro organisms, planktons, discovery channel, discovery planet, discovery time, aquamarine discoveriesResearchers have been continuously talking about the declining of planktons. Have you ever spared a though about why has this been happening? The mystery is revealed here! Just as recently as January 12 2009, a report from ScienceDaily says that the history of the evolution of diatoms -- abundant oceanic plankton that remove billions of tons of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere through out each year -- requires to be brought in the light, according to a new Cornell study. the study spans back to some 33 millions ago, when an abrupt rise in the number of species, there was a sudden fall of diatoms -- trends that coincided with severe global cooling. According to the research, the long-held theory that diatoms' success was tied to an influx of nutrients deep into the oceans from the rise of grasslands that had taken place some 18 million years ago is doubtful enough to be true. From the recent study, led by graduate student Dan Rabosky of Cornell's Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and the Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, the researchers got an evidence of a much widespread problem in paleontology: that older fossils are harder to find than the younger ones.

Rabosky said that they tried to address the simple fact that the number of available fossils is colossally greater from recent times than from earlier times. He added, "It's a pretty standard correction in some fields, but it hasn't been applied to planktonic paleontology up till now." Over 90% of the diatom fossils that are known, are younger than 18 million years. Another unadjusted survey of diatom fossils has given a clue of the fact that more diatom species have been in existence in the recent past than just 18 million years ago. Researchers say that it is possible to understand the dearth of the early fossils. In order to get the sampling for the diatom fossil, drill ships are required to be bored deep into sea floor sediment. The scientists needs to find out the ancient sediment on the seafloor first in order to find a trace of an ancient fossil, which is not an easy job, because plate tectonics constantly shift the ocean floor. Fossils spots are also shifted as a result. Moreover the great part of the seafloor is to young to sample, as per the scientists.

While making the research, Rabosky and co-author Ulf Sorhannus of Edinboro University of Pennsylvania controlled for the number of samples that were taken from the time period of each million-year of the Earth's history, going 40 million years backward. Re-analysis of the findings, caused that long-accepted boom in diatoms theory over the last 18 million years simply disappear. Instead of that long-accepted boom in diatoms theory, the researchers concluded that there had been a recent gradual rise, with a much more dramatic increase and decline at the end of the Eocene epoch, that is, about 33 million years ago.

discovery, aquamarine discoveries aquamarine discoveries around the world, discovery website on invention, science websites, aquamarine discoveries micro organisms, planktons, discovery channel, discovery planet, discovery timeThe diatoms gained their peak diversity at least 10 million years prior to when grasslands became came into being. Rabosky said, "if there was a truly significant change in diatom diversity at all, it happened 30 million years ago". According to him, "the shallow, gradual increase we see is totally different from the kind of exponential increase you would expect if grasslands were the cause". While giving an example of an increase of that type, Rabosky recalled another fossil record -- the teeth of horses. Before the grasslands came into being, the horses were believed to have smaller teeth that were suited for chewing soft leaves... not the harder grass like today. This belief had been supported by scientific researches. As per Rabosky, although the diatoms ought to have shown a similar evolutionary response to the sudden availability of silica, yet they don't.

The new findings fail to explain the diatoms that are currently prevalent in the ocean, yet Rabosky said that whatever led to the rise in diatoms' at the end of the Eocene period, the tiny organisms may have contributed to a greater extent to the global cooling that followed. Rabosky said, "why diatom diversity peaked for 4 to 5 million years and then dropped is a big mystery. But it corresponds with a period when the global climate swung from hothouse to ice house. It's tempting to speculate that these tiny plankton, by taking carbon dioxide out of the air, might have helped trigger the most severe global cooling event in the past 100 million years"

Rabosky's research has been partly supported by the National Science Foundation.

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