New Frog Discovered

Here is another news on discovery that has amazed the lovers of animals world wide! The story is of the researchers exploring deep into the the jungles of Colombia. A British-led team of well versed scientists who walked into the deep Columbian forest in search for frogs that are believed to be extinct since World War I, has ended up with discovery of a frog species that was never known to science so far. Three species hitherto including the one very strange "tiny beaked frog" that have always been unknown to mankind have been discovered in Colombia. Amongst the others were another type of toad and the a poison-secreting rocket frog, which is very attractive.

The "tiny beaked frog" which is even tinier than a human thumbnail at the maturity has deep purple skin with small blue blotches on it. The most fascinating fact about this frog is that it has a beak like extension in front of its nose, which led the scientists give it such a name.

The next discovered treasure is a red-legged tree frog. This is another beautiful amphibian with distinctive black streaks from the nose region to the body. Interestingly this is a poisonous frog and carries toxic chemical cargo, though this new species is less toxic than most other toxic frogs known to science.

The third discovery is the brown toad with exceptionally beautiful red eyes is another important addition to the zoological record. "I have never seen a toad with such vibrant red eyes," said Robin Moore, Conservation International, the scientist who led the team. He also said, "this trait is highly unusual for amphibians, and its discovery offers us a terrific opportunity to learn more about how and why it adapted this way." George Meyer, a long-time Simpsons writer and amphibian enthusiast, said, "the toad's imperious profile and squinty eyes indeed look like Monty Burns."

As the leader of the expedition, the Scottish amphibian conservation officer and photographer, Robin Moore, 35, from Edinburgh, played the mos vital role in the discoveries. Robin said, "the amazing part is that nobody, in the history of its existence, has ever recorded its presence."

According to the experts from Conservation International, the reason that tiny beaked toad has not been identified previously is probably because the species skips the tadpole stage, instead producing toadlets that resemble the fallen leaves of the forest floor in which they live. The amphibian search, co-ordinated by Conservation International along with the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, began in August and is the first co-ordinated attempt to look for species assumed to be extinct since the First World War.

Photographs by Robin Moore

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Who or what is out there, reprogramming and sending us unknown signals? Interesting the researchers and great minds Opine that there is every possibility that some alien species who exit in outer solar system has trapped the probe - Voyager 2 and reprogrammed it - probably the motive is to get in touch with us! Who knows, what the truth actually is ????

Well, let us talk a few words about the Voyager 2. The Voyager 2 is an unmanned unmanned interplanetary space probe that had been launched on August 20, 1977 by NASA. It is still functional as on this year 2010. Alike the Voyager 1, the Voyager 2space probe had been designed, developed and built at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory near Pasadena, California. Most interestingly, the Voyager 2 is expected to keep transmitting weak radio signals until at least 2025, which is over 48 years since it was launched in the year 1977. The Voyager 2 was directed to grab information on Jupiter and Saturn and their systems of moons and rings. The space probe Voyager 2 is backed with highly technical and well assorted scientific instruments including two highly sensitive vidicon cameras to make measurements in the ultraviolet, infrared, and radio wavelengths, as well as ones to measure the cosmic rays and subatomic particles in outer space.

Along with the voyager 2, Nasa had sent a gold record (CD) welcoming potential aliens to Earth. The CD contained a welcome message in 55 languages, noises of nature (waves, birds) and some clasical music (mozart), and most interestingly sounds of dolphins and whales. This probe travelled to the edge of our solar system and has been sending back signals that take around 13 hours to reach the Earth. Unfortunately on the 22nd April 2010, Voyager 2 started sending distorted signals and finally stopped transmitting signals all together.

What the experts at NASA thinks about the probe's stopping transmitting signals?

It might be the fact that aliens were responsible for distorted signals or they might be trying to contact us! This really sounds quite weird and strange, but there's no reason to deny believing what great minds are thinking!

Reports from NASA experts has clearly depicted that signals are distorted as if someone has reprogrammed it. Now when the Voyager 2 again started sending back signals, it sounded like an answer, although signals was not recognized as it was in an unknown data format. The Alien expert Hartwig Hausdorf, a German academic, said "it seems almost as if someone had reprogrammed or hijacked the probe – thus perhaps we do not yet know the whole truth. I don’t refute the possibility that some alien species which are wandering in outer solar system has reprogrammed it and quite possibly they want to establish contact with us. Most clever minds (damn , I'm not among them right now but believe one day I'll) are trying to decode that unknown signals. Voyager probe also carried the recorded sounds of whales and dolphins. May be possible some unkown creture from Jovian World has deciphered it and sending signals back to the Earth."

Nasa claimed that software problem with the flight data system caused the probe to send unknown signals. Mr Hausdorf, on the other hand, believes it could be the work of aliens. Hartwig Hausdorf believes that the reason Voyager 2, an unmanned probe that has been in space since 1977, is sending strange messages that are confusing scientists, is because it has been taken over by extraterrestrial life. He told the German newspaper Bild: "It seems almost as if someone has reprogrammed or hijacked the probe – thus perhaps we do not yet know the whole truth." Dr Edward Stone, a scientist on the project, said the desk, called the Golden Record, is "a kind of time capsule, intended to communicate a story of our world to extraterrestrials."

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Why do you Burp or Belch?

After you have drunk water or ate your foods, you normally burp out air? So tell me children, where does this burp come from?

A burp, also called belch is a volume of gas that comes out of your stomach. When you eat or drink, you usually engulf some air along with it. The air that we swallow with our food and drink, contains different gases, which need to get out, and they get out in the form of burp or belch. The extra gas that goes in along with your food and drink is forced out your stomach, passing out throuch esophagus and finally through your mouth in the form of belch or burp.

Now why do you feel to burp more when you drink corbonated drinks or soda?

Guess why!

Well, the reason behind the fact that you feel to burp more frequently and in big volume when you drink corbonated drinks or soda is quite simple. It's because these drinks contains extra carbon dioxide gas. When you drinnk these beverages you swallow the extra gas in them in more volume. Consequently the extra carbon dioxide needs to get out more frequently, as the volume of gas intaken is more.

Burping is not a thing to worry about until it happens once in a while. Burping is quite normal and good in kids and adults as it means that the move out the the extra gas from your stomach. So there's nothing wrong in burping; even the president of your country burp after drinking and eating. It is not wise to force your burp stay in; it will cause considerable agitation and discomfort, which may be harmful. Always burp out the extra gas that needs to come out. But when you are around people and you feel a burp coming on, try to do it quietly, covering your mouth. This is nothing but maintaining your decency when you are around people.

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Important Inventions and Discoveries

• Adrenaline: (isolation of) John Jacob Abel, U.S., 1897.
• Aerosol can: Erik Rotheim, Norway, 1926.
• Air brake: George Westinghouse, U.S., 1868.
• Air conditioning: Willis Carrier, U.S., 1911.
• Airship: (non-rigid) Henri Giffard, France, 1852; (rigid) Ferdinand von Zeppelin, Germany, 1900.
• Aluminum manufacture: (by electrolytic action) Charles M. Hall, U.S., 1866.
• Anatomy, human: (De fabrica corporis humani, an illustrated systematic study of the human body) Andreas Vesalius, Belgium, 1543; (comparative: parts of an organism are correlated to the functioning whole) Georges Cuvier, France, 1799–1805.
• Anesthetic: (first use of anesthetic—ether—on humans) Crawford W. Long, U.S., 1842.
• Antibiotics: (first demonstration of antibiotic effect) Louis Pasteur, Jules-François Joubert, France, 1887; (discovery of penicillin, first modern antibiotic) Alexander Fleming, England, 1928; (penicillin's infection-fighting properties) Howard Florey, Ernst Chain, England, 1940.
• Antiseptic: (surgery) Joseph Lister, England, 1867.
• Antitoxin, diphtheria: Emil von Behring, Germany, 1890.
• Appliances, electric: (fan) Schuyler Wheeler, U.S., 1882; (flatiron) Henry W. Seely, U.S., 1882; (stove) Hadaway, U.S., 1896; (washing machine) Alva Fisher, U.S., 1906.
• Aqualung: Jacques-Yves Cousteau, Emile Gagnan, France, 1943.
• Aspirin: Dr. Felix Hoffman, Germany, 1899.
• Astronomical calculator: The Antikythera device, first century B.C., Greece. Found off island of Antikythera in 1900.
• Atom: (nuclear model of) Ernest Rutherford, England, 1911.
• Atomic theory: (ancient) Leucippus, Democritus, Greece, c. 500 B.C.; Lucretius, Rome c.100 B.C.; (modern) John Dalton, England, 1808.
• Atomic structure: (formulated nuclear model of atom, Rutherford model) Ernest Rutherford, England, 1911; (proposed current concept of atomic structure, the Bohr model) Niels Bohr, Denmark, 1913.
• Automobile: (first with internal combustion engine, 250 rpm) Karl Benz, Germany, 1885; (first with practical high-speed internal combustion engine, 900 rpm) Gottlieb Daimler, Germany, 1885; (first true automobile, not carriage with motor) René Panhard, Emile Lavassor, France, 1891; (carburetor, spray) Charles E. Duryea, U.S., 1892.
• Autopilot: (for aircraft) Elmer A. Sperry, U.S., c.1910, first successful test, 1912, in a Curtiss flying boat.
• Avogadro's law: (equal volumes of all gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal number of molecules) Amedeo Avogadro, Italy, 1811.
• Bacteria: Anton van Leeuwenhoek, The Netherlands, 1683.
• Balloon, hot-air: Joseph and Jacques Montgolfier, France, 1783.
• Barbed wire: (most popular) Joseph E. Glidden, U.S., 1873.
• Bar codes: (computer-scanned binary signal code):
• (retail trade use) Monarch Marking, U.S. 1970; (industrial use) Plessey Telecommunications, England, 1970.
• Barometer: Evangelista Torricelli, Italy, 1643.
• Bicycle: Karl D. von Sauerbronn, Germany, 1816; (first modern model) James Starley, England, 1884.
• Big Bang theory: (the universe originated with a huge explosion) George LeMaitre, Belgium, 1927; (modified LeMaitre theory labeled “Big Bang”) George A. Gamow, U.S., 1948; (cosmic microwave background radiation discovered, confirms theory) Arno A. Penzias and Robert W. Wilson, U.S., 1965.
• Blood, circulation of: William Harvey, England, 1628.
• Boyle's law: (relation between pressure and volume in gases) Robert Boyle, Ireland, 1662.
• Braille: Louis Braille, France, 1829.
• Bridges: (suspension, iron chains) James Finley, Pa., 1800; (wire suspension) Marc Seguin, Lyons, 1825; (truss) Ithiel Town, U.S., 1820.
• Bullet: (conical) Claude Minié, France, 1849.
• Calculating machine: (logarithms: made multiplying easier and thus calculators practical) John Napier, Scotland, 1614; (slide rule) William Oughtred, England, 1632; (digital calculator) Blaise Pascal, 1642; (multiplication machine) Gottfried Leibniz, Germany, 1671; (important 19th-century contributors to modern machine) Frank S. Baldwin, Jay R. Monroe, Dorr E. Felt, W. T. Ohdner, William Burroughs, all U.S.; (“analytical engine” design, included concepts of programming, taping) Charles Babbage, England, 1835.
• Calculus: Isaac Newton, England, 1669; (differential calculus) Gottfried Leibniz, Germany, 1684.
• Camera: (hand-held) George Eastman, U.S., 1888; (Polaroid Land) Edwin Land, U.S., 1948.
• “Canals” of Mars: Giovanni Schiaparelli, Italy, 1877.
• Carpet sweeper: Melville R. Bissell, U.S., 1876.
• Car radio: William Lear, Elmer Wavering, U.S., 1929, manufactured by Galvin Manufacturing Co., “Motorola.”
• Cells: (word used to describe microscopic examination of cork) Robert Hooke, England, 1665; (theory: cells are common structural and functional unit of all living organisms) Theodor Schwann, Matthias Schleiden, 1838–1839.
• Cement, Portland: Joseph Aspdin, England, 1824.
• Chewing gum: (spruce-based) John Curtis, U.S., 1848; (chicle-based) Thomas Adams, U.S., 1870.
• Cholera bacterium: Robert Koch, Germany, 1883.
• Circuit, integrated: (theoretical) G.W.A. Dummer, England, 1952; (phase-shift oscillator) Jack S. Kilby, Texas Instruments, U.S., 1959.
• Classification of plants: (first modern, based on comparative study of forms) Andrea Cesalpino, Italy, 1583; (classification of plants and animals by genera and species) Carolus Linnaeus, Sweden, 1737–1753.
• Clock, pendulum: Christian Huygens, The Netherlands, 1656.
• Coca-Cola: John Pemberton, U.S., 1886.
• Combustion: (nature of) Antoine Lavoisier, France, 1777.
• Compact disk: RCA, U.S., 1972.
• Computers: (first design of analytical engine) Charles Babbage, 1830s; (ENIAC, Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator, first all-electronic, completed) 1945; (dedicated at University of Pennsylvania) 1946; (UNIVAC, Universal Automatic Computer, handled both numeric and alphabetic data) 1951.
• Concrete: (reinforced) Joseph Monier, France, 1877.
• Condensed milk: Gail Borden, U.S., 1853.
• Conditioned reflex: Ivan Pavlov, Russia, c.1910.
• Conservation of electric charge: (the total electric charge of the universe or any closed system is constant) Benjamin Franklin, U.S., 1751–1754.
• Contagion theory: (infectious diseases caused by living agent transmitted from person to person) Girolamo Fracastoro, Italy, 1546.
• Continental drift theory: (geographer who pieced together continents into a single landmass on maps) Antonio Snider-Pellegrini, France, 1858; (first proposed in lecture) Frank Taylor, U.S.; (first comprehensive detailed theory) Alfred Wegener, Germany, 1912.
• Contraceptive, oral: Gregory Pincus, Min Chuch Chang, John Rock, Carl Djerassi, U.S., 1951.
• Converter, Bessemer: William Kelly, U.S., 1851.
• Cosmetics: Egypt, c. 4000 B.C.
• Cosamic string theory: (first postulated) Thomas Kibble, 1976.
• Cotton gin: Eli Whitney, U.S., 1793.
• Crossbow: China, c. 300 B.C.
• Cyclotron: Ernest O. Lawrence, U.S., 1931.
• Deuterium: (heavy hydrogen) Harold Urey, U.S., 1931.
• Disease: (chemicals in treatment of) crusaded by Philippus Paracelsus, 1527–1541; (germ theory) Louis Pasteur, France, 1862–1877.
• DNA: (deoxyribonucleic acid) Friedrich Meischer, Germany, 1869; (determination of double-helical structure) Rosalind Elsie Franklin, F. H. Crick, England, James D. Watson, U.S., 1953.
• Dye: (aniline, start of synthetic dye industry) William H. Perkin, England, 1856.
• Dynamite: Alfred Nobel, Sweden, 1867.
• Electric cooking utensil: (first) patented by St. George Lane-Fox, England, 1874.
• Electric generator (dynamo): (laboratory model) Michael Faraday, England, 1832; Joseph Henry, U.S., c.1832; (hand-driven model) Hippolyte Pixii, France, 1833; (alternating-current generator) Nikola Tesla, U.S., 1892.
• Electric lamp: (arc lamp) Sir Humphrey Davy, England, 1801; (fluorescent lamp) A.E. Becquerel, France, 1867; (incandescent lamp) Sir Joseph Swann, England, Thomas A. Edison, U.S., contemporaneously, 1870s; (carbon arc street lamp) Charles F. Brush, U.S., 1879; (first widely marketed incandescent lamp) Thomas A. Edison, U.S., 1879; (mercury vapor lamp) Peter Cooper Hewitt, U.S., 1903; (neon lamp) Georges Claude, France, 1911; (tungsten filament) Irving Langmuir, U.S., 1915.
• Electrocardiography: Demonstrated by Augustus Waller, 1887; (first practical device for recording activity of heart) Willem Einthoven, 1903, Dutch physiologist.
• Electromagnet: William Sturgeon, England, 1823.
• Electron: Sir Joseph J. Thompson, England, 1897.
• Elevator, passenger: (safety device permitting use by passengers) Elisha G. Otis, U.S., 1852; (elevator utilizing safety device) 1857.
• E = mc2: (equivalence of mass and energy) Albert Einstein, Switzerland, 1907.
• Engine, internal combustion: No single inventor. Fundamental theory established by Sadi Carnot, France, 1824; (two-stroke) Etienne Lenoir, France, 1860; (ideal operating cycle for four-stroke) Alphonse Beau de Roche, France, 1862; (operating four-stroke) Nikolaus Otto, Germany, 1876; (diesel) Rudolf Diesel, Germany, 1892; (rotary) Felix Wankel, Germany, 1956.
• Evolution: (organic) Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, France, 1809; (by natural selection) Charles Darwin, England, 1859.
• Exclusion principle: (no two electrons in an atom can occupy the same energy level) Wolfgang Pauli, Germany, 1925.
• Expanding universe theory: (first proposed) George LeMaitre, Belgium, 1927; (discovered first direct evidence that the universe is expanding) Edwin P. Hubble, U.S., 1929; (Hubble constant: a measure of the rate at which the universe is expanding) Edwin P. Hubble, U.S., 1929.
• Falling bodies, law of: Galileo Galilei, Italy, 1590.
• Fermentation: (microorganisms as cause of) Louis Pasteur, France, c.1860.
• Fiber optics: Narinder Kapany, England, 1955.
• Fibers, man-made: (nitrocellulose fibers treated to change flammable nitrocellulose to harmless cellulose, precursor of rayon) Sir Joseph Swann, England, 1883; (rayon) Count Hilaire de Chardonnet, France, 1889; (Celanese) Henry and Camille Dreyfuss, U.S., England, 1921; (research on polyesters and polyamides, basis for modern man-made fibers) U.S., England, Germany, 1930s; (nylon) Wallace H. Carothers, U.S., 1935.
• Frozen food: Clarence Birdseye, U.S., 1924.
• Gene transfer: (human) Steven Rosenberg, R. Michael Blaese, W. French Anderson, U.S., 1989.
• Geometry, elements of: Euclid, Alexandria, Egypt, c. 300 B.C.; (analytic) René Descartes, France; and Pierre de Fermat, Switzerland, 1637.
• Gravitation, law of: Sir Isaac Newton, England, c.1665 (published 1687).
• Gunpowder: China, c.700.
• Gyrocompass: Elmer A. Sperry, U.S., 1905.
• Gyroscope: Léon Foucault, France, 1852.
• Halley's Comet: Edmund Halley, England, 1705.
• Heart implanted in human, permanent artificial:Dr. Robert Jarvik, U.S., 1982.
• Heart, temporary artificial: Willem Kolft, 1957.
• Helicopter: (double rotor) Heinrich Focke, Germany, 1936; (single rotor) Igor Sikorsky, U.S., 1939.
• Helium first observed on sun: Sir Joseph Lockyer, England, 1868.
• Heredity, laws of: Gregor Mendel, Austria, 1865.
• Holograph: Dennis Gabor, England, 1947.
• Home videotape systems (VCR): (Betamax) Sony, Japan, 1975; (VHS) Matsushita, Japan, 1975.
• Ice age theory: Louis Agassiz, Swiss-American, 1840.
• Induction, electric: Joseph Henry, U.S., 1828.
• Insulin: (first isolated) Sir Frederick G. Banting and Charles H. Best, Canada, 1921; (discovery first published) Banting and Best, 1922; (Nobel Prize awarded for purification for use in humans) John Macleod and Banting, 1923; (first synthesized), China, 1966.
• Intelligence testing: Alfred Binet, Theodore Simon, France, 1905.
• Interferon: Alick Isaacs, Jean Lindemann, England, Switzerland, 1957.
• Isotopes: (concept of) Frederick Soddy, England, 1912; (stable isotopes) J. J. Thompson, England, 1913; (existence demonstrated by mass spectrography) Francis W. Ashton, 1919.
• Jet propulsion: (engine) Sir Frank Whittle, England, Hans von Ohain, Germany, 1936; (aircraft) Heinkel He 178, 1939.
• Kinetic theory of gases: (molecules of a gas are in a state of rapid motion) Daniel Bernoulli, Switzerland, 1738.
• Laser: (theoretical work on) Charles H. Townes, Arthur L. Schawlow, U.S., N. Basov, A. Prokhorov, U.S.S.R., 1958; (first working model) T. H. Maiman, U.S., 1960.
• Lawn mower: Edwin Budding, John Ferrabee, England, 1830–1831.
• LCD (liquid crystal display): Hoffmann-La Roche, Switzerland, 1970.
• Lens, bifocal: Benjamin Franklin, U.S., c.1760.
• Leyden jar: (prototype electrical condenser) Canon E. G. von Kleist of Kamin, Pomerania, 1745; independently evolved by Cunaeus and P. van Musschenbroek, University of Leyden, Holland, 1746, from where name originated.
• Light, nature of: (wave theory) Christian Huygens, The Netherlands, 1678; (electromagnetic theory) James Clerk Maxwell, England, 1873.
• Light, speed of: (theory that light has finite velocity) Olaus Roemer, Denmark, 1675.
• Lightning rod: Benjamin Franklin, U.S., 1752.
• Locomotive: (steam powered) Richard Trevithick, England, 1804; (first practical, due to multiple-fire-tube boiler) George Stephenson, England, 1829; (largest steam-powered) Union Pacific's “Big Boy,” U.S., 1941.
• Lock, cylinder: Linus Yale, U.S., 1851.
• Loom: (horizontal, two-beamed) Egypt, c. 4400 B.C.; (Jacquard drawloom, pattern controlled by punch cards) Jacques de Vaucanson, France, 1745, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, 1801; (flying shuttle) John Kay, England, 1733; (power-driven loom) Edmund Cartwright, England, 1785.
• Machine gun: (hand-cranked multibarrel) Richard J. Gatling, U.S., 1862; (practical single barrel, belt-fed) Hiram S. Maxim, Anglo-American, 1884.
• Magnet, Earth is: William Gilbert, England, 1600.
• Match: (phosphorus) François Derosne, France, 1816; (friction) Charles Sauria, France, 1831; (safety) J. E. Lundstrom, Sweden, 1855.
• Measles vaccine: John F. Enders, Thomas Peebles, U.S., 1953.
• Metric system: revolutionary government of France, 1790–1801.
• Microphone: Charles Wheatstone, England, 1827.
• Microscope: (compound) Zacharias Janssen, The Netherlands, 1590; (electron) Vladimir Zworykin et al., U.S., Canada, Germany, 1932–1939.
• Microwave oven: Percy Spencer, U.S., 1947.
• Motion, laws of: Isaac Newton, England, 1687.
• Motion pictures: Thomas A. Edison, U.S., 1893.
• Motion pictures, sound: Product of various inventions. First picture with synchronized musical score: Don Juan, 1926; with spoken dialogue: The Jazz Singer, 1927; both Warner Bros.
• Motor, electric: Michael Faraday, England, 1822; (alternating-current) Nikola Tesla, U.S., 1892.
• Motorcycle: (motor tricycle) Edward Butler, England, 1884; (gasoline-engine motorcycle) Gottlieb Daimler, Germany, 1885.
• Moving assembly line: Henry Ford, U.S., 1913.
• Neptune: (discovery of) Johann Galle, Germany, 1846.
• Neptunium: (first transuranic element, synthesis of) Edward M. McMillan, Philip H. Abelson, U.S., 1940.
• Neutron: James Chadwick, England, 1932.
• Neutron-induced radiation: Enrico Fermi et al., Italy, 1934.
• Nitroglycerin: Ascanio Sobrero, Italy, 1846.
• Nuclear fission: Otto Hahn, Fritz Strassmann, Germany, 1938.
• Nuclear reactor: Enrico Fermi, Italy, et al., 1942.
• Ohm's law: (relationship between strength of electric current, electromotive force, and circuit resistance) Georg S. Ohm, Germany, 1827.
• Oil well: Edwin L. Drake, U.S., 1859.
• Oxygen: (isolation of) Joseph Priestley, 1774; Carl Scheele, 1773.
• Ozone: Christian Schönbein, Germany, 1839.
• Pacemaker: (internal) Clarence W. Lillehie, Earl Bakk, U.S., 1957.
• Paper China, c.100 A.D.
• Parachute: Louis S. Lenormand, France, 1783.
• Pen: (fountain) Lewis E. Waterman, U.S., 1884; (ball-point, for marking on rough surfaces) John H. Loud, U.S., 1888; (ball-point, for handwriting) Lazlo Biro, Argentina, 1944.
• Periodic law: (that properties of elements are functions of their atomic weights) Dmitri Mendeleev, Russia, 1869.
• Periodic table: (arrangement of chemical elements based on periodic law) Dmitri Mendeleev, Russia, 1869.
• Phonograph: Thomas A. Edison, U.S., 1877.
• Photography: (first paper negative, first photograph, on metal) Joseph Nicéphore Niepce, France, 1816–1827; (discovery of fixative powers of hyposulfite of soda) Sir John Herschel, England, 1819; (first direct positive image on silver plate, the daguerreotype) Louis Daguerre, based on work with Niepce, France, 1839; (first paper negative from which a number of positive prints could be made) William Talbot, England, 1841. Work of these four men, taken together, forms basis for all modern photography. (First color images) Alexandre Becquerel, Claude Niepce de Saint-Victor, France, 1848–1860; (commercial color film with three emulsion layers, Kodachrome) U.S., 1935.
• Photovoltaic effect: (light falling on certain materials can produce electricity) Edmund Becquerel, France, 1839.
• Piano: (Hammerklavier) Bartolommeo Cristofori, Italy, 1709; (pianoforte with sustaining and damper pedals) John Broadwood, England, 1873.
• Planetary motion, laws of: Johannes Kepler, Germany, 1609, 1619.
• Plant respiration and photosynthesis: Jan Ingenhousz, Holland, 1779.
• Plastics: (first material, nitrocellulose softened by vegetable oil, camphor, precursor to Celluloid) Alexander Parkes, England, 1855; (Celluloid, involving recognition of vital effect of camphor) John W. Hyatt, U.S., 1869; (Bakelite, first completely synthetic plastic) Leo H. Baekeland, U.S., 1910; (theoretical background of macromolecules and process of polymerization on which modern plastics industry rests) Hermann Staudinger, Germany, 1922.
• Plate tectonics: Alfred Wegener, Germany, 1912–1915.
• Plow, forked: Mesopotamia, before 3000 B.C.
• Plutonium, synthesis of: Glenn T. Seaborg, Edwin M. McMillan, Arthur C. Wahl, Joseph W. Kennedy, U.S., 1941.
• Polio, vaccine: (experimentally safe dead-virus vaccine) Jonas E. Salk, U.S., 1952; (effective large-scale field trials) 1954; (officially approved) 1955; (safe oral live-virus vaccine developed) Albert B. Sabin, U.S., 1954; (available in the U.S.) 1960.
• Positron: Carl D. Anderson, U.S., 1932.
• Pressure cooker: (early version) Denis Papin, France, 1679.
• Printing: (block) Japan, c.700; (movable type) Korea, c.1400; Johann Gutenberg, Germany, c.1450 (lithography, offset) Aloys Senefelder, Germany, 1796; (rotary press) Richard Hoe, U.S., 1844; (linotype) Ottmar Mergenthaler, U.S., 1884.
• Probability theory: René Descartes, France; and Pierre de Fermat, Switzerland, 1654.
• Proton: Ernest Rutherford, England, 1919.
• Prozac: (antidepressant fluoxetine) Bryan B. Malloy, Scotland, and Klaus K. Schmiegel, U.S., 1972; (released for use in U.S.) Eli Lilly & Company, 1987.
• Psychoanalysis: Sigmund Freud, Austria, c.1904.
• Pulsars: Antony Hewish and Jocelyn Bell Burnel, England, 1967.
• Quantum theory: (general) Max Planck, Germany, 1900; (sub-atomic) Niels Bohr, Denmark, 1913; (quantum mechanics) Werner Heisenberg, Erwin Schrödinger, Germany, 1925.
• Quarks: Jerome Friedman, Henry Kendall, Richard Taylor, U.S., 1967.
• Quasars: Marten Schmidt, U.S., 1963.
• Rabies immunization: Louis Pasteur, France, 1885.
• Radar: (limited to one-mile range) Christian Hulsmeyer, Germany, 1904; (pulse modulation, used for measuring height of ionosphere) Gregory Breit, Merle Tuve, U.S., 1925; (first practical radar—radio detection and ranging) Sir Robert Watson-Watt, England, 1934–1935.
• Radio: (electromagnetism, theory of) James Clerk Maxwell, England, 1873; (spark coil, generator of electromagnetic waves) Heinrich Hertz, Germany, 1886; (first practical system of wireless telegraphy) Guglielmo Marconi, Italy, 1895; (first long-distance telegraphic radio signal sent across the Atlantic) Marconi, 1901; (vacuum electron tube, basis for radio telephony) Sir John Fleming, England, 1904; (triode amplifying tube) Lee de Forest, U.S., 1906; (regenerative circuit, allowing long-distance sound reception) Edwin H. Armstrong, U.S., 1912; (frequency modulation—FM) Edwin H. Armstrong, U.S., 1933.
• Radioactivity: (X-rays) Wilhelm K. Roentgen, Germany, 1895; (radioactivity of uranium) Henri Becquerel, France, 1896; (radioactive elements, radium and polonium in uranium ore) Marie Sklodowska-Curie, Pierre Curie, France, 1898; (classification of alpha and beta particle radiation) Pierre Curie, France, 1900; (gamma radiation) Paul-Ulrich Villard, France, 1900.
• Radiocarbon dating, carbon-14 method: (discovered) 1947, Willard F. Libby, U.S.; (first demonstrated) U.S., 1950.
• Radio signals, extraterrestrial: first known radio noise signals were received by U.S. engineer, Karl Jansky, originating from the Galactic Center, 1931.
• Radio waves: (cosmic sources, led to radio astronomy) Karl Jansky, U.S., 1932.
• Razor: (safety, successfully marketed) King Gillette, U.S., 1901; (electric) Jacob Schick, U.S., 1928, 1931.
• Reaper: Cyrus McCormick, U.S., 1834.
• Refrigerator: Alexander Twining, U.S., James Harrison, Australia, 1850; (first with a compressor device) the Domelse, Chicago, U.S., 1913.
• Refrigerator ship: (first) the Frigorifique, cooling unit designed by Charles Teller, France, 1877.
• Relativity: (special and general theories of) Albert Einstein, Switzerland, Germany, U.S., 1905–1953.
• Revolver: Samuel Colt, U.S., 1835.
• Richter scale: Charles F. Richter, U.S., 1935.
• Rifle: (muzzle-loaded) Italy, Germany, c.1475; (breech-loaded) England, France, Germany, U.S., c.1866; (bolt-action) Paul von Mauser, Germany, 1889; (automatic) John Browning, U.S., 1918.
• Rocket: (liquid-fueled) Robert Goddard, U.S., 1926.
• Roller bearing: (wooden for cartwheel) Germany or France, c.100 B.C.
• Rotation of Earth: Jean Bernard Foucault, France, 1851.
• Royal Observatory, Greenwich: established in 1675 by Charles II of England; John Flamsteed first Astronomer Royal.
• Rubber: (vulcanization process) Charles Goodyear, U.S., 1839.
• Saccharin: Constantine Fuhlberg, Ira Remsen, U.S., 1879.
• Safety pin: Walter Hunt, U.S., 1849.
• Saturn, ring around: Christian Huygens, The Netherlands, 1659.
• “Scotch” tape: Richard Drew, U.S., 1929.
• Screw propeller: Sir Francis P. Smith, England, 1836; John Ericsson, England, worked independently of and simultaneously with Smith, 1837.
• Seismograph: (first accurate) John Milne, England, 1880.
• Sewing machine: Elias Howe, U.S., 1846; (continuous stitch) Isaac Singer, U.S., 1851.
• Solar energy: First realistic application of solar energy using parabolic solar reflector to drive caloric engine on steam boiler, John Ericsson, U.S., 1860s.
• Solar system, universe: (Sun-centered universe) Nicolaus Copernicus, Warsaw, 1543; (establishment of planetary orbits as elliptical) Johannes Kepler, Germany, 1609; (infinity of universe) Giordano Bruno, Italian monk, 1584.
• Spectrum: (heterogeneity of light) Sir Isaac Newton, England, 1665–1666.
• Spectrum analysis: Gustav Kirchhoff, Robert Bunsen, Germany, 1859.
• Spermatozoa: Anton van Leeuwenhoek, The Netherlands, 1683.
• Spinning: (spinning wheel) India, introduced to Europe in Middle Ages; (Saxony wheel, continuous spinning of wool or cotton yarn) England, c.1500–1600; (spinning jenny) James Hargreaves, England, 1764; (spinning frame) Sir Richard Arkwright, England, 1769; (spinning mule, completed mechanization of spinning, permitting production of yarn to keep up with demands of modern looms) Samuel Crompton, England, 1779.
• Star catalog: (first modern) Tycho Brahe, Denmark, 1572.
• Steam engine: (first commercial version based on principles of French physicist Denis Papin) Thomas Savery, England, 1639; (atmospheric steam engine) Thomas Newcomen, England, 1705; (steam engine for pumping water from collieries) Savery, Newcomen, 1725; (modern condensing, double acting) James Watt, England, 1782.
• Steamship: Claude de Jouffroy d'Abbans, France, 1783; James Rumsey, U.S., 1787; John Fitch, U.S., 1790. All preceded Robert Fulton, U.S., 1807, credited with launching first commercially successful steamship.
• Stethoscope: René Laënnec, France, 1819.
• Sulfa drugs: (parent compound, para-aminobenzenesulfanomide) Paul Gelmo, Austria, 1908; (antibacterial activity) Gerhard Domagk, Germany, 1935.
• Superconductivity: (theory) Bardeen, Cooper, Scheiffer, U.S., 1957.
• Symbolic logic: George Boule, 1854; (modern) Bertrand Russell, Alfred North Whitehead, England, 1910–1913.
• Tank, military: Sir Ernest Swinton, England, 1914.
• Tape recorder: (magnetic steel tape) Valdemar Poulsen, Denmark, 1899.
• Teflon: DuPont, U.S., 1943.
• Telegraph: Samuel F. B. Morse, U.S., 1837.

• Telephone: Alexander Graham Bell, U.S., 1876.
• Telescope: Hans Lippershey, The Netherlands, 1608; (astronomical) Galileo Galilei, Italy, 1609; (reflecting) Isaac Newton, England, 1668.
• Television: (Iconoscope–T.V. camera table), Vladimir Zworkin, U.S., 1923, and also kinescope (cathode ray tube), 1928; (mechanical disk-scanning method) successfully demonstrated by J.K. Baird, England, C.F. Jenkins, U.S., 1926; (first all-electric television image), 1927, Philo T. Farnsworth, U.S; (color, mechanical disk) Baird, 1928; (color, compatible with black and white) George Valensi, France, 1938; (color, sequential rotating filter) Peter Goldmark, U.S., first introduced, 1951; (color, compatible with black and white) commercially introduced in U.S., National Television Systems Committee, 1953.
• Thermodynamics: (first law: energy cannot be created or destroyed, only converted from one form to another) Julius von Mayer, Germany, 1842; James Joule, England, 1843; (second law: heat cannot of itself pass from a colder to a warmer body) Rudolph Clausius, Germany, 1850; (third law: the entropy of ordered solids reaches zero at the absolute zero of temperature) Walter Nernst, Germany, 1918.
• Thermometer: (open-column) Galileo Galilei, c.1593; (clinical) Santorio Santorio, Padua, c.1615; (mercury, also Fahrenheit scale) Gabriel D. Fahrenheit, Germany, 1714; (centigrade scale) Anders Celsius, Sweden, 1742; (absolute-temperature, or Kelvin, scale) William Thompson, Lord Kelvin, England, 1848.

• Tire, pneumatic: Robert W. Thompson, England, 1845; (bicycle tire) John B. Dunlop, Northern Ireland, 1888.
• Toilet, flush: Product of Minoan civilization, Crete, c. 2000 B.C. Alleged invention by “Thomas Crapper” is untrue.
• Tractor: Benjamin Holt, U.S., 1900.
• Transformer, electric: William Stanley, U.S., 1885.
• Transistor: John Bardeen, Walter H. Brattain, William B. Shockley, U.S., 1947.
• Tuberculosis bacterium: Robert Koch, Germany, 1882.
• Typewriter: Christopher Sholes, Carlos Glidden, U.S., 1867.

• Uncertainty principle: (that position and velocity of an object cannot both be measured exactly, at the same time) Werner Heisenberg, Germany, 1927.
• Uranus: (first planet discovered in recorded history) William Herschel, England, 1781.
• Vaccination: Edward Jenner, England, 1796.
• Vacuum cleaner: (manually operated) Ives W. McGaffey, 1869; (electric) Hubert C. Booth, England, 1901; (upright) J. Murray Spangler, U.S., 1907.
• Van Allen (radiation) Belt: (around Earth) James Van Allen, U.S., 1958.
• Video disk: Philips Co., The Netherlands, 1972.
• Vitamins: (hypothesis of disease deficiency) Sir F. G. Hopkins, Casimir Funk, England, 1912; (vitamin A) Elmer V. McCollum, M. Davis, U.S., 1912–1914; (vitamin B) McCollum, U.S., 1915–1916; (thiamin, B1) Casimir Funk, England, 1912; (riboflavin, B2) D. T. Smith, E. G. Hendrick, U.S., 1926; (niacin) Conrad Elvehjem, U.S., 1937; (B6) Paul Gyorgy, U.S., 1934; (vitamin C) C. A. Hoist, T. Froelich, Norway, 1912; (vitamin D) McCollum, U.S., 1922; (folic acid) Lucy Wills, England, 1933.
• Voltaic pile: (forerunner of modern battery, first source of continuous electric current) Alessandro Volta, Italy, 1800.
• Wallpaper: Europe, 16th and 17th century.
• Wassermann test: (for syphilis) August von Wassermann, Germany, 1906.
• Wheel: (cart, solid wood) Mesopotamia, c.3800–3600 B.C.
• Windmill: Persia, c.600.
• World Wide Web: (developed while working at CERN) Tim Berners-Lee, England, 1989; (development of Mosaic browser makes WWW available for general use) Marc Andreeson, U.S., 1993.
• Xerography: Chester Carlson, U.S., 1938.
• Zero: India, c.600; (absolute zero temperature, cessation of all molecular energy) William Thompson, Lord Kelvin, England, 1848.
• Zipper: W. L. Judson, U.S., 1891.

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Two fossils of ancient giant penguins were discovered in South America

Hey, let’s talk about something very interesting today! Yes, this post is about discovery of penguin fossils that had been made in South America. The discovery has revealed quite a great deal of information about the history of little penguins that thrive today. A report released on one fine Monday in June 2007, described that the fossil discoveries of a couple of ancient species giant penguin suggested that the little penguins that roams about the glaciers today had a real big starting. The scientists describe that the big birds whose fossil had been discovered used be move around the area that is now known as Peru over 40 million years ago.

The finding was really amazing and helped the scientists to track certain information about the ancient species of giant penguins. Scientists named the bird Icadyptes salasi, which used to stand at some 5 feet tall… a man’s height. Paleontologist Julie Clarke, an assistant professor at North Carolina State University, said that these ancient penguins were larger than any other known birds of same species living today or has ever roamed about on this planet. The largest variety of penguins living today is the Emperor penguin, which grows to nearly 4 feet tall on an average. Another new species, a smaller penguin called Perudyptes devriesi, was almost close to the size of a living King penguin that grows to nearly 3 feet tall no average.

fossil discovery, fossil discoveriesThe fossil discovery of the ancient giant penguins has stirred up confusions amongst the researchers including paleontologist Julie Clarke. The confusion has rose out of the fact that the penguins, as large as the ones we are discussing about (Icadyptes salasi), shouldn’t have been found in the warm environment where they used to live. The question is how could they tolerate the natural heat? The fossils of the giant birds revealed that the species used to live during one of the warmest time period in the history. In this regard Clarke said, "In most cases, the larger individuals of the species are linked with colder climates…" How could the giant penguins manage to thrive in such a warm environment still remains a mystery to most researchers!

Even more surprising discovery is that these penguins had migrated to warmer climates much earlier than they were originally thought to have done. Scientists believe that these giant penguins hadn't moved to warmer waters until 10 million years ago. We can still find penguins across the warmer areas like the islands of Southern Hemisphere and even near the equator. But these penguins are much smaller and are found in the cold water belts. Bigger varieties are usually found in cold regions like Antarctica. How could Icadyptes salasi handle the extremely warm environment, despite being much bigger than the penguin species found today?

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